The Objectives of Islamic Law
When we say “objectives of Islamic Law”, we are referring to the general aims that Islamic Law strives to fulfill with respect to the human life as well as the specific aims that particular legal injunctions have been set down in order to achieve.
These objectives, therefore, can be classified into two broad categories: general and specific.
The general objectives of Islamic Law are those that aim at realizing the general human welfare, both in this world and in the Hereafter. This is achieved by Islamic Law through the legislation of a body of legal injunctions. The specific objectives of Islamic Law are those that Islamic Law seeks to realize in a narrower domain of human activity, such as economics, family life, or the political order. This is achieved through specific legislation aimed at dealing with particular issues.
The Prioritization of These Objectives
The factors that secure human can be ranked in their order of importance as follows:
1. Necessities: These are things that mankind cannot dispense with, no matter what the circumstances. The most important of these are the five universal necessities that will be discussed shortly.
2. Needs: These are things that people require in order to fulfill important requirements of their lives, the absence of which leads to hardship and disorder, but which does not bring about an end to life itself. These things make themselves manifest in the specific Islamic injunctions pertaining to commerce, marriage, and other forms of transactions.
3. Niceties: These are things that beautify life and make if fuller and richer. They include concerns such as dressing neatly, the proper preparation of food, and all other good habits that shape human behavior.
All the revealed religions and all rational people agree that the most important way to ensure human welfare is through the preservation of five universal necessities. These are: faith, life, reason, lineage, and wealth. Islamic Law provides all the injunctions needed to protect and preserve all five of these necessities. It legislates what is needed to ensure their existence in human society as well as what is needed to develop them and preserve them from being corrupted or lost.
The Preservation of Faith
Islam has stressed the importance of faith for human life by citing the natural human inclination to worship Allah, man’s religious sentiments and inner feelings, the strength of the elements of goodness and virtue within him, and the prosperity and tranquility that faith affords him. Due to these factors, faith is a vital necessity of human life. Allah says:
So set your face towards the pure faith, Allah’s natural way upon which He created mankind. There can be no change in Allah’s Creation. This is the straight faith, but most men do not know.
For the same reason, Bridgestone says: “There have been – and continue to be – human societies that do not possess science, art, or philosophy, but there has never been a society without religion.”
In consideration of these factors, Islamic Law protects faith. In some cases, this is achieved by planting faith firmly and deeply in the heart and mind. In other cases, this is through nurturing the seed of faith that is already present in an individual and supporting it with what will develop it and make it endure.
As a means to achieving these goals, Islam has established the following:
The means taken to establish faith in the heart
1. Faith must be firmly established on clearly defined articles. The articles of faith are: belief in Allah, His Messengers, His Books, His angels, the Day of Judgment, and Divine Decree, both the good and the bad of it. Allah says:
The Messenger believes in what was sent down to him from his Lord, and so do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His books, and His Messengers. (They say:) We make no distinction between any of the Messengers.
Allah also says:
O you who believe, believe in Allah, His Messenger, the Book that was sent down upon the Messenger, and what was sent down before. Whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, and the Day of Judgment has gone far astray.
2. Faith is established on the basis of knowledge and rational proofs. On these grounds, Islam calls towards examination, contemplation and reflection. Allah says: Do they not look into the dominion of the heavens and the Earth and all the things that Allah has created?
Allah reproaches those who do not reflect upon the many signs that are present in Creation, saying:
How many a sign in the heavens and Earth they pass by while they are aversely turned away.
He also reproaches those who follow their desires and blindly follow their forefathers in belief without having any proof at hand and without engaging in any contemplation. Allah says:
When it is said to them, ‘Follow what Allah has sent down’ they say, ‘Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following.’ Would they do this even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided?
3. The pillars of Islam must be established. These pillars are the principle acts of worship that Islam enjoins upon the believers. The first of these is to make an open testimony of one’s Islam. This is then followed by prayer, Zakah, fasting, and performing the Hajj pilgrimage. Among the most important effects of these acts of worship – and the profound wisdom behind them – is that they create a direct bond between the worshipper and his Lord, strengthening and rejuvenating the faith that exists in the heart of the believer.
Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) relates to us that Allah says:
The servant does not seek nearness to Me with anything more beloved to Me than what I have commanded him to do. Then the servant continues to seek nearness to Me with voluntary acts until I love him.
Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) also says:
Islam is built on five pillars: testifying that there is no god save Allah and that Muhammad is his Messenger, establishing prayer, paying the Zakah tax, fasting the month of Ramadan, and performing the Hajj pilgrimage if one finds the means to do so.
4. It is a duty to call others to Islam. This duty extends to maintaining and sponsoring such efforts, and to giving due support and protection to those who are carrying it out. Allah says:
Let there arise from amongst you a group of people who invite to all that is good, command what is right and prohibit what is wrong. These are the successful ones.
He also says: Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good exhortation and argue with them in the best manner.
Allah mentions the advice that Luqman gave to his son:
O my son, perform the prayer, command what is right, and prohibit what is wrong, and bear patiently whatever befalls you.
The Means Taken to Maintain and Preserve Faith
What is meant here are the methods pursued by Islamic Law to protect and safeguard faith after it has been achieved, to maintain its purity in the heart, and to remove any obstacles from its path. Among these means are the following:
Islam guarantees and protects freedom of religion
Islam does not compel anyone to embrace it and permits a plurality of religious beliefs to coexist under its authority within the boundaries of the Islamic state. It affords the people of other faiths the freedom to maintain their beliefs, religious practices, and civil codes. Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said:
They have the rights that we have and the duties that we have.
Furthermore, one of the goals of jihad (struggle in the cause of Allah) is to protect religious freedom. Allah says:
Had it not been for Allah checking one people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, wherein Allah’s name is often mentioned, would have been torn down.
Islam prescribes Jihad to defend the faith, repel its enemies, and to protect it.
Fight in the path of Allah against those who fight you and do not transgress bounds; verily Allah does not love the transgressors.
Allah also says: What is wrong with you that you do not fight in the path of Allah and for the weak and oppressed men, women, and children whose cry is, ‘Our Lord, rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from Your grace one who will protect us, and raise for us from Your grace one who will help us.
After accepting Islam, it is obligatory to adhere to the teachings of the faith and to put them into practice.
This gives faith vitality in the hearts of its practitioners and lets it have its affect on their sentiments. Because of this, belief and good works are mentioned together in many verses of the Quran, wherein the following phrase is repeated quite frequently:
Verily those who believe and work righteous deeds…
Apostasy is a crime punishable by law. This ensures that a person is serious when embracing Islam, so that no one enters into Islam without first having firm and complete conviction. Moreover, Allah does not accept anyone’s faith unless it springs from conviction. If a person enters Islam, it must be a permanent decision taken on the basis of firm conviction. If he rejects faith thereafter, he is actually introducing to the public a measure of intellectual and political uncertainty that can disrupt society and destroy its desired level of intellectual and psychological stability.
Allah mentions the words of the idolaters who called to these activities:
A group of the People of the Scripture said: “Believe in what came down upon those who believe at the beginning of the day, then disbelieve at the end of the day, so perhaps they might return from faith.”
Thus, the punishment for apostasy was legislated to safeguard the seriousness and the sacredness of faith.
A number of necessary and complementary acts of worship have been established to act as a protective shield for one’s faith.
Among these are performing prayers in congregation and numerous forms of voluntary worship. These acts establish and ingrain faith within the hearts of the people who perform them and strengthen faith in the society where these acts are put into practice. This brings to both the individual and society a sense of security, tranquility, and righteousness.
The Preservation of Life
The sanctity of human life is one of the necessities of human existence. Islam has set down a number of means to secure the sanctity of life. Among them are the following:
A. The means taken to promote the existence of human life:
Islamic Law prescribes marriage. Islam has legislated it for the purpose of producing progeny, increasing the human population, and providing people who will develop the Earth and sow the seeds of human life for the generations to come. Islam extols the sacred relationship between a husband and wife and considers it to be one of Allah’s signs. Allah says:
Among His signs is that he created for you wives from among yourselves that you may find comfort in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.
B. The means taken to safeguard the continuity of life:
1. Islam obligates man to secure the means to sustain his life. This includes obtaining food, drink, clothing, and shelter. It is forbidden for a Muslim to eschew these necessities to the point where it endangers his life. It also obligates the state to provide the minimum amount of these necessities to those who are incapable of providing for themselves. Furthermore, it obligates one who is in danger of losing his life to prevent death by consuming the property of others to the extent of his need.
2. The state is obligated to furnish the necessary infrastructure to ensure public safety. This includes such things as providing a justice system and a police force.
3. It is obligatory to defend the honor of the human being. This manifests itself in such laws as the prohibition of false accusation and defamation. It is also why restricting human activities without justification is prohibited. In this way, liberties such as freedom of thought, freedom of opinion, economic freedom, the freedom to reside where one wants to, and the freedom to relocate are safeguarded and ensured. Allah says:
Whoever abuses believing men and women undeservedly, they bear upon themselves the crime of slander and manifest sin.
4. Islamic Law provides concessions under certain conditions to ward off undue difficulty that might cause personal harm or injury. One of these concessions is the right of the one who is sick or traveling to break his fast in Ramadan. Another is the right of the traveler to shorten his prayers.
5. Islam prohibits the taking of human life, whether that life be one’s own or that of someone else. Allah says: Do not kill yourselves. Verily Allah is to you Most Merciful.
The crime of murder is deplorable, so much so that taking one life is considered equivalent to killing all of mankind. Allah says: Whoever kills a person, not in retaliation for murder or iniquity in the Earth, then it would be as if he killed all of mankind.
Allah also says: Do not kill a person whose life Allah has made sacred except in the dispensation of justice.
He says: Whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, abiding therein. Allah’s wrath is upon him, and His curse; and He has prepared for him a great punishment.
In an authentic hadîth, it is related that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Whoever kills someone who has a covenant with us will never smell the fragrance of Paradise.
6. Retribution is prescribed in the case of murder while payment of blood money and freeing a slave are obligatory in the case of unintentional manslaughter.
Allah says: O you who believe, the law of retribution is prescribed for you in murder.
Allah also says: It is not for a believer to kill another believer except by mistake; and whosoever kills a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave and pay blood money to the his family unless they remit it. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, then a believing slave must be set free; and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty, then blood money must be paid to his family and a slave must be freed. And whoever finds this (the freeing of a slave) beyond his means must fast for two consecutive months seeking repentance from Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
7. Jihad may be proclaimed in order to preserve lives and safeguard those who are weak and oppressed in the Earth.
Allah says: What is wrong with you that you do not fight in the path of Allah and for the weak and oppressed men, women, and children.
8. It is obligatory for a Muslim to save a person who is in danger of being murdered or killed for another reason, if that Muslim is capable of doing so.
9. Islamic Law prescribes self-defense when one is attacked. One should defend oneself if attacked and the defender is not in any way responsible if the attacker dies, as long as it is clear that the other truly intended to attack him.
The Preservation of Reason
Islam affords a great deal of importance to reason since it is the basis on which human beings are held responsible. Reason is the attribute that honors the human being and exalts him above the rest of Creation. It is what qualifies him to be Allah’s vicegerent on Earth and to carry out the sacred trust from Allah. Allah says: Verily, We had offered the trust to the heavens and the Earth and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it. But man bore it.
Due to its extreme importance, Islamic Law seeks to preserve reason and establishes a number of injunctions to ensure the health and freedom of the rational faculties. Among these are the following:
1. Islam has prohibited every substance that affects the mind, harms it, or decreases its abilities. This includes substances like wine and hashish. Allah says: O you who believe, intoxicants, gambling, sacrificing to idols, and divination are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So avoid all of this that perhaps you might be successful.
2. Islam sets down a stiff legal punishment to discourage the use of intoxicants. This is on account of the serious danger that they pose to both the individual and society.
3. Islam develops the intellect and nurtures it on a spirit of independent thinking. It guides the intellect to understand, to contemplate, to follow rational arguments and proofs, and to discard the blind following of others. Allah says: Or have they taken for worship gods beside Him? Say (O Muhammad): “Bring your proof.”
Allah also says: Whoever invokes besides Allah another god, of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Verily, the disbelievers will not be successful.
The Quran declares to the unbelievers: Bring your proof, if you are truthful.
4. Islam calls toward developing and cultivating the mind. On the material level, this includes getting proper nourishment that strengthens the body and enlivens the mind. For this reason, it is disliked for a judge to pass judgment when he is hungry. This is also the reason why, if food happens to be served at the time of prayer, it is preferable to eat before going to perform the prayer. On the intellectual level, Islam emphatically encourages the pursuit of knowledge, considering it to be the basis of faith.
Allah says: It is only the knowledgeable among His servants who fear Allah.
Allah commands us to offer the following supplication: Say, ‘O my Lord, increase me in knowledge!
Likewise, Islam affords everyone an opportunity to learn, making it a general right of all people in society. Moreover, it has made a certain level of knowledge obligatory upon every Muslim man and woman.
5. Islam elevates the status of reason and honors those who possess it. This is emphasized in more than one verse of the Quran. Allah says the following:
- Give glad tidings to my servants who listen to the word and follow the best thereof. These are the ones whom Allah has guided, and these are the ones who possess understanding.
- Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the Earth and the alternation of the night and day are signs for people who possess understanding.”
- Say, ‘Are those who know the same as those who know not?’ The only ones who consider are the people who possess understanding.
6. The rational faculties must be kept free from the influence of superstition and the shackles of delusion. For this reason, Islam forbids practices based on deceit and superstition, such as witchcraft, fortune telling, and sleight of hand magic. Likewise, it prohibits the rational faculties from delving into questions of the unseen without having the ability to do so and without possessing knowledge coming from the revelation that was sent down to the Prophets. This is merely an unjustifiable way of wasting one’s intellectual abilities.
Allah says: Verily those who dispute about Allah’s signs without any authority having come to them, they have nothing in their hearts except pride. They shall never attain it. So seek refuge in Allah, Verily, He is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
7. Use of reason should be based upon a fruitful manner of gathering information and drawing conclusions, and upon a firm grasp of the facts.
There are two approaches to this:
* Rational investigation. Islam has set down the proper method for rational investigation, one that provides certainty. This means that Islam calls to confirming things before believing them before belief. Allah says: And follow not that which you have no knowledge.
Allah also says, quoting the youths who sought refuge from their people by going to the cave:
These people of ours have taken for worship gods beside Allah. Why, then, do they not bring a clear proof for them? So who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah.
* Reflection and contemplation. Islam calls to reflection and contemplation about the laws of nature, encouraging humanity to bring them to light and appreciate their intricacy and how deeply they are interrelated. It also calls to induction based on careful observation and detailed examination in order to attain certainty.
8. Islam directs the mind to seek out the wisdom and subtleties behind its legislations. Allah says: Do they not, then, carefully consider the Quran? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found within it many a contradiction.
9. Likewise, Islam directs the intellect towards attaining knowledge of the physical world and how to benefit from it in order to build civilization. Allah says: He is the one who has made the Earth subservient to you; so walk in its land and eat of His provision.
10. Islam has left open the door of juristic reasoning with respect to its legislation wherever there is a matter for which there is no direct textual evidence. There are two areas where this can occur:
A. Ascertaining the objectives and aims of the texts and legal injunctions.
B. Deriving legal injunctions for newly occurring problems and situations. This is a very broad area that takes recourse to a number of general principles, like juristic analogy, considering the general welfare, and juristic preference.
The Preservation of Lineage
Lineage, here, is understood to mean the continuation of the human species through the agency of hereditary descent. Islam strives to perpetuate the human line on Earth until the Last Day. In order to bring about this objective, Islam has set down the following principles and legislations:
1. Islam enjoins marriage. Islam permits and encourages marriage, considering it to be the pure and natural way for a man and woman to come together. It is not only for the purpose of fulfilling natural impulses, but also to fulfill the noble purpose of preserving the human species and producing righteous offspring who will develop the world, establish an exemplary model of human life, and assume the role of Allah’s vicegerent on Earth.
This is ultimately so that they can pass on this vicegerency to those who come after them, perpetuating the human contribution and allowing human civilization to prosper in the shade of the most noble principles and moral virtues.
2. Islam pays close attention to the upbringing of the youth and fostering bonds of love. Parents are obligated to take care of their children and provide for them until they no longer need their parents’ support.
3. Islam pays close attention to establishing the family on a firm foundation, considering it to be the stronghold that protects and fosters the next generation. Islam establishes the marital bond on the basis of free choice and the mutual consent of the two parties, then afterwards on the basis of harmonious dealings between the two spouses and mutual consultation on all matters. This brings feelings of affection and mutual understanding between them, causing each of the two spouses to seek the happiness of the other. Allah says:
Among His signs is that he created for you wives from among yourselves that you may find comfort in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.
4. Islam encompasses all possible relationships between men and women with a collection of principles and codes of moral conduct. These ensure that the noble aims of these relationships are fulfilled and that destructive practices in relationships between the sexes are avoided.
Among these obligations is the duty of every man to avert his gaze from every woman and for every woman to avert her gaze from every man. This helps to prevent sexual desire from being ignited. Likewise, Islamic Law combats the causes of temptation by making concealing clothing of a specific quality obligatory on the Muslims.
Outside of dire necessity, Islam prohibits a man to be alone with a woman to whom he is not related by blood, fosterage, or marriage, even if proper dress is observed, unless she is chaperoned by one of her near relatives.
The home, necessarily, enjoys a great deal of sanctity in Islam, whereby it is forbidden to enter another’s home without seeking the permission of its occupants and greeting them with peace.
Allah says: O you who believe, do not enter houses other than your own before seeking their permission and greeting their occupants with peace.
Added to these and other etiquettes, Islam provides codes of conduct when interaction between unrelated men and women becomes necessary.
5. Islam forbids every assault on chastity and honor. For this reason, Allah has forbidden fornication and adultery, as well as falsely accusing someone of sexual iniquity, setting fixed, prescribed punishments for both of these crimes in order to discourage them. With regard to fornication, Allah says: The woman and man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes. Do not let pity dissuade you from carrying out a punishment prescribed by Allah.
Allah says, with respect to falsely accusing someone of sexual iniquity: And those who accuse chaste women and fail to produce four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their testimony forever.
The Preservation of Wealth
It is always the case with Islam, when dealing with man’s natural inclinations, that it permits their fulfillment within reasonable limits in a refined, enlightened, and sound manner, so that good and not evil can come of them. This is the case exactly when it comes to man’s natural inclination to possess. Islam permits individual ownership, while at the same time providing the necessary legislation to prevent the harmful effects that this inclination would have if left unchecked, like the loss of social equilibrium and the concentration of wealth within a small sector of society. Some of the systems that Islam has put into place to fulfill this function are those of Zakah, inheritance, and social security. From this perspective, Islam considers wealth to be a one of the indispensable necessities of human life.
Islam has set down for man laws and guidelines that encourage him to seek a livelihood and acquire wealth, and secure for him its safety, preservation, and growth. This is achieved in the following manner:
A. The means taken to ensure the production and acquisition of wealth:
1. Islam encourages actively seeking ones sustenance and earning a livelihood. It does so in consideration of the fact that wealth is what provides support for human life. Islam considers the earning of wealth – if pursued with a righteous intent and with permissible means – to be a form of worship and a means of achieving nearness to Allah. Allah says:
He is the one Who has made the Earth subservient to you; so walk in its land and eat of His provision.
Allah also says:
Then when the prayer is completed, set forth in the Earth and seek the bounty of Allah.
2. Islam raises the status of work and elevates the standing of the workers. In an authentic hadîth, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: No one has ever eaten food better than that which he has earned with the work of his own hands. The Prophet of Allah, David, used to eat from the work of his own hands.
Islam establishes the right to work for every individual and holds the state responsible to provide work for those who are unable to find it. Islam, likewise, asserts the honor and nobility of the worker and makes fulfilling his material and intangible rights an obligation. Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Give the worker his wage before his sweat has time to dry.
He also said: There are three who I will speak against on the Day of Judgment: a man who was entrusted with something then betrayed the trust, a man who sold a free person into slavery and took the price, and a man who hired a worker and benefited from him then did not pay his due.
Islam also asserts that a worker’s pay should be enough to fulfill his needs. Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Whoever is appointed to work for us and does not have a home should be given a home. If he does not have a wife, he should be given the means to marry, and if he does not have a mount, he should be provided with one.
This is what we call today the principle of minimum wage.
3. Islam permits just forms of commercial transactions. It allows transactions that are neither oppressive to any of the parties concerned nor infringe upon the rights of others.
For this reason, we find that that Islam reaffirmed many types of transactions that were already in existence before Islam, after ridding them of any element of oppression. These include numerous transactions such as selling, loaning on collateral, and partnerships. Islam also opens the door for new forms of transactions that the accumulated experiences of society might uncover; provided that they contain no element of oppression or injury to any of the parties involved and that they do not entail wrongfully consuming the wealth of others.
B. The Means Taken to Ensure the Preservation and Continuation of Wealth:
1. The use of wealth is limited by the constraints of considering the general welfare. Therefore, any means of acquiring wealth that is unlawful and harmful to others is expressly forbidden. One such means is the collection of interest, because of the detrimental effect that it has on social equilibrium. Allah says: Allah has permitted commerce and forbidden interest.
Allah also says: Do not consume each others wealth unjustly.
2. Islam prohibits transgressing against the wealth of others through theft, burglary, or fraud. Islam sets a fixed punishment for theft. Allah says: The thieves, male and female, cut off their hands.
It is obligatory for anyone who damages the property of others to pay compensation. Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: The blood, wealth and honor of every Muslim are sacred.
3. Islam forbids wealth to be spent in unlawful ways and encourages spending in the way of charity. This is based upon one of the most important principles of the Islamic economic system: All wealth belongs to Allah alone, and man is merely entrusted with its use. Allah says: - And spend from that which He has made you trustees.
- And give them from Allah’s wealth that He has bestowed upon you.
Therefore, it is incumbent upon anyone who possesses wealth to use his wealth within the confines set by Islamic Law. It is not permissible for him to let his wealth tempt him into transgression, because this is a cause of degradation and destruction. Allah says: When We decide to destroy a town, We send a command to those among them who live a life of luxury. Then, they commit sin therein, and thus the word is justified against them and We completely annihilate it.
It is likewise impermissible for him to squander his wealth on useless things. Allah says: Do not squander, verily those who squander are the brethren of the devils.
4. Islamic Law provides legislation to protect the wealth of the mentally deficient and others who are incapable of managing their own wealth. This includes the wealth of orphans and minors until they reach the age of discretion. For this reason, a guardian is appointed to manage their wealth. Allah says: -Test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage, and if you find them of sound judgment, then release their property over to them. -They ask you concerning the orphans. Say (O Muhammad): “The best thing is to improve their property.”
This principle also encompasses placing an interdiction over the property of a mature person who, nevertheless, is incapable of exercising proper judgment with regard to the disposal of his property. Allah says: Do not give to the foolish your property that Allah has given you to maintain, but feed and clothe them from it and speak to them words of kindness.
5. Financial interactions are structured around the principles of consent and justice. Islam, thus, maintains that contracts are not binding unless the contracting parties exercised their mutual consent and the contract’s provisions are just. For this reason, gambling is prohibited. Allah says: O you who believe, do not consume each other’s property unjustly, but let there be commerce between you by mutual consent.
6. Islam encourages wealth to be invested and developed so that it can fulfill its proper function in society. Therefore, Islam prohibits and combats the hoarding of wealth and keeping it out of circulation. Allah says: And those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend them in the way of Allah, announce to them a painful punishment.
With all these injunctions, Islam protects wealth and safeguards it from corruption so it can fulfill its necessary and indispensable role in the order of human life and facilitate the growth of civilization. Its place is just like that of the other necessities of life, for together they form the basis of human life and civilization. If they are not properly managed and preserved, the world would fall into ruin and the positive contributions of human civilization would come to a halt.